Author: Meng Xiayun (Lecturer of the School of Foreign Affairs)
Some countries will set July 7 as "Chocolate Day", and its establishment can be traced back to 2009 to commemorate the introduction of chocolate from July 7, 1550 to Europe.People never thought that the food derived from a tropical plant thousands of years ago actually occupied half of the daily dessert recipes of modern people.Desserts such as Tiramisu and cookie biscuits, or drinks such as thermal cocoa, chocolate coffee, etc., people’s love for sweets makes the chocolate market grow year by year.Europe, Ireland, Britain, Austria, Belgium, etc. have become the world’s largest chocolate consumer, of which Switzerland per capita consumption in 2012 reached 12 kg.
The illustration depicts the scene of a Mexican indigenous resident in the 16th century.Data picture
Ⅰ An old life: "Food of the Gods"
TheOBROMACACAO was named after the 18th century Swedish scientist Carlvonlinn [~ symbol ~]) in 1753, which was named by its own two -name method.Confrontation.Among them, Theobroma originated from Greek, which means "the food of the gods". This is because when the Spanish colonists arrived in the Americas, they found that the Aztec who lived in Central America regarded chocolate as the food of the gods.It is a luxury that can only be enjoyed by Aztek noble classes.In addition, it is also made into beverages and pastries to replace the blood of people at some important sacrifice rituals, expressing respect and gratitude to the gods.CACAO in the second half of the Coco tree is from the Tuyu of the New Continent, which implies the early history of chocolate.Lin Nai puts CACAO, which originally belonged to the name of the New World, and gave it to the belonging of the cocoa tree name and gave the two plants. This approach is as intriguing as the cultural conflict of the new and old continent.In fact, the CACAO of Spanish now means cocoa tree, cocoa beans or cocoa powder.According to the Royal Spanish College Dictionary Drae, the term CACAO in Spanish is derived from the indigenous Navattel in Mexico and Central America."Chocolate"; this word also comes from Chocol in Mayan, which means "hot" and "water".It is generally believed that the Aztecs have learned the technology of planting and using cocoa from Mayan.So, does this originate from Mayan civilization?
A piece of Maya ceramics is painted with a foam chocolate container.Data picture
In fact, the history of the American planting cocoa may be longer, and it can even be traced back to the Olmek civilization of the earliest civilization in the Americas.Scientists were detected by the mass spectrometry of the liquid chromatography method, and the ancient porcelain from 3800 years ago contains the ingredients that can be found in cocoa trees.People speculate that the cocoa tree originated in the northwest of the Amazon River Basin, where people were first regarded as picked wild fruit trees, and then passed from Ecuador to the Soconusco region in Soconusco, Chapas, Mexico.Around 1800 BC, the locals invented the method of making cocoa beans into chocolate. As the region and the center of Olmek spoke Mixe-Zoque, the term "cocoa" happened to happen.The vocabulary "Kakawa" in the Muses Sock was derived from the cocoa plant at the time.Therefore, from the perspective of word source, the ancient name of modern chocolate was Kakawa.Today, people have rarely used the second science of Kakawa or Lin Nai. Occasionally, they can see dessert shops, coffee shops or chocolate companies named after Kakawa on the streets of Latin American countries.In English, people almost agreed to refer to cocoa plants and its unprocessed products as "CACAO", and the liquid or solid shape made of cocoa beans is called "chocolate".
Cocoa in Mayan civilization
Because of the influence of Olmek’s civilization, the name "Kakawa" in Miscelon Socker was spread in Central America for generations, and was gradually accepted and absorbed by other new civilizations.From 2000 to around 1500).Due to the lack of text records in the early Americas, the ancient history of chocolate was inferred by archaeologists from the alkaline components of the unearthed utensils, and the real record records of chocolate dates back to the blue river of the dangerous land of the Dangerous Malaysia.The pictographs they write have cocoa.In the 11th to 12th centuries BC, there are several chapters of the Dresden manuscripts about sacrifice activities related to the Maya Zhuojin calendar.It is cocoa, and some also marked the cocoa deities; Madrid also recorded the scene of the gods squatting on the cocoa tree and flying on the cocoa pot with the cocoa pot.The last note page of the manuscript depicts the scene of four gods piercing ears and blood splashes of cocoa pots with obsidian, symbolizing the connection between chocolate and human blood in Mayan culture; and the creation myth written by Mayan after the Spanish colonization "waveThe stories in Popolvuh also repeatedly appeared the image of the cocoa tree, and the important position of cocoa in ancient Mayan civilization can be seen.
The most common text on Mayan utensils unearthed by the Mayan Royal Grand Tomb is called the basic standard sequence (PSS), which is a systematic sequence or pattern flower shape.It is found that a pronunciation of a pronunciation of Ka-Ka-W (that is, CACAO) composite words are ubiquitous in PSS text patterns on the Maya long-necked bottle, indicating that these utensils are made and consumed by chocolates of the Maya court.The pictographs on the three -legged long -necked bottle discovered by Guatemala Blue River have cocoa, and it is also marked that it is an appliance for drinking cocoa.Archaeologists found that after 600 AD, Chinese Americans began to play with long -necked bottle or prepare chocolate drinks.The Maya people are good at using chocolate itself to foam, or pour chocolate from one high bottle into another low bottle to make it fully foam, calling it "Yomcacao"; or full baking can cause it to produce itMany chocolate bubbles are called Takankel.This kind of ancient Maya has a foam eating habit of adding foam in chocolate, but modern people use more external materials for foaming.
The sculpture shows the Aztec man with a Hococo can.Data picture
The Mayan people use different flavors of chocolate drinks. In some PSS text sequences, many chocolate seasonings that are not named are not named.Seasoning, giving drinks a pleasant burning taste, this practice is quite similar to the creativity of net red desserts popular in China today.In addition, the Mayan people also made chocolate drinks, corn -flavors, vanilla, and ear -flavored chocolate drinks, and used various drinks on religious rituals and banquets.
It is said that at the children’s baptism ceremony, the Mayan people use a mixed natural and pure water and a certain flower and cocoa powder to apply this liquid to the child’s forehead, cheeks, fingers, and toes to pray.Some Maya tribes will also drink cocoa like drinking at the engagement ceremony as drinking. Newcomers will also give each other cocoa beans as autonomic.According to historical records, when king of Kieche selected his wife, the king’s messenger could get a bottle of red drinks and a can of concentrated chocolate, which shows the status of cocoa in Mayan culture.The contributions made by Mayan for the processing of cocoa and the production of chocolate drinks have laid a good foundation for the development of chocolate in the history of cooking.
Drinks and currencies of the III Aztek Empire
The Aztec civilization was formed in the early 14th century and produced in a small nomadic nation.By the beginning of the 15th century, when Mayan was declining, at this time the Aztecs established the Tenochititlán Empire in Mexico.The Aztecs prefer to drink local beverages Oakli (that is, agave), but at that time, Aztec’s ban on the ban was very strict, and he was punished by drunk.In order to avoid drunk, Aztec gradually started drinking chocolate in the upper society to replace Oakli.But the luxury goods that the poor class of Aztek’s poor class runs counter to the simple life concept they pursue, so the Aztecs connect the word "luxury", thinking that this is the birthplace of chocolate, Mexico, Mexico, Mexico.Pronouns for the people of developed regions such as Bay and Low Bay and Maya.
Unlike the Mayan preferences to drink hot chocolate, the Aztecs like to drink cold chocolate.They will also add a variety of condiments to chocolate drinks like Mayan, such as honey, flowers, green vanilla, and even pepper powder to make the drink colorful.In their chocolate recipes, the names of earlinacaztli, Tlilxochitl, and MECAXOCHITL often appear.) It is believed that it has aphrodisiac, so when the Aztecs’ chocolate drinks flow into Europe, the aphrodisiac of chocolate is constantly circulating.In addition, Elnands also discovered the chocolate recipes with medical value, and added the fruit nucleus of Pouteriasapota to the chocolate.But it is worth noting that because the Aztecs regard the chocolate as the deliciousness of God, only the princes, nobles, businessmen and soldiers can enjoy it, and ordinary people are expected to be incompetent.
A Maya color vase is painted with a woman who is pouring chocolate from one jar to another.Data picture
On the one hand, Coco Dou acts as the source of elite drinks, and on the other hand, he plays the role of exchange currency.The Aztek people accumulated a large number of cocoa beans as the empire as the imperial currency by giving tribute and trade.The storage volume of the Royal Warehouse of the Royal Warehouse is even more amazing. American anthropologists and food historians Sophie D. Ke and Mike d. The "Chocolate: A Real History" mentioned that according to historical materialsStatistics, in the cocoa warehouse of King Aztec, the King of Aztec, who lives, there are more than 40,000 cocoa beans with more than 40,000 carrier -loading units, that is, 960 million.When the Spanish colonists plundered Montezuma’s empire, hundreds of Indian slaves under their men broke into the warehouse, grabbing the cocoa beans for a whole night, and then the Spanish colonists continued to snatch.The inventory of the 20ths of King Zuma, it can be seen that the nobles of the princes at that time had collected the cocoa bean as a treasure collection.
Cocoa is so precious because it is entirely because of its practical value, but because it has strong exchange value, that is, purchasing power."Chocolate: A True History" mentioned that shortly after the trapped in Pinotititlan, the daily salary of a porter in central Mexico was 100 cocoa beans, TLAXCALA in 1545, and goods, goods, productsThe price is roughly: a big tomato and one cocoa bean, a three -cocoa beans, a corn cake roll fish with three cocoa beans, a female turkey 100 fresh cocoa beans or 120 atrophic cocoa beans.Cocoa bean atrophy will lead to a decline in the corresponding exchange value. It can be seen that its attributes are equivalent to passing currency. Once a certain item gets the transaction value, the speculative person is beneficial to have pictures., Wax or avocado nuclear forged cocoa beans for market transactions.
抵 The "resistance" and innovation of the Spanish
When Azteke’s official official was obsessed with the dream of the empire, the crisis had quietly appeared.In 1492, Columbus discovered that the colonial expansion followed.For the first time, Europeans came into contact with Coco.
The Spaniards first discovered the currency function of the Cocoa bean. Columbus’s younger son Fi Danan once recorded in the diary. The locals regarded a kind of almond as a treasure and used it to trade.However, the Spaniards accepted its currency function, but sneered at drinks with it as raw materials.They think that this bitter drink is strange and turbid, especially the Indians often mix a small amount of rouge tree fruit slurry in chocolate. Every time they drink, their mouths and beards are dyed red, "like drinking blood."Therefore, early colonists have a resistance to chocolate.However, over time, the new and old continent culture merged in all aspects, the colonists and Indians intermarried, and the cultural customs influenced each other. The Spaniards gradually accepted chocolate and cultivated daily drinking customs.It is also in this context that chocolate began to spread to Spain and other parts of Europe.
Of course, in the process of two cultural fusion, the Spaniards also made some improvement and innovation of chocolate. They did not drink cold chocolate or room temperature chocolate like the Aztecs, but heated and added sucrose to add flavor.They also replaced the seasoning of the new continent with the old continent, such as cinnamon, black pepper, star anise seeds replaced ear flowers and peppers.They also improved the original methods of the Indians for brewing with chocolate drinks. They replaced them with a stirring rod or a bartender rod, and even pressed the cocoa powder into prestige cakes or pills.Transportation became the prototype of "fast -dissolving chocolate" later.
Chocolate became part of the life of the Spanish colonists. At that time, even a concept of helping to strengthen the body was popular.This concept is due to Elnands’s judgment on cocoa seeds. It believes that it is biased towards "coolness and wetness", which can clear heat and detoxify, reduce fever and wake the brain, and have rich nutritional value.Doctor Huan Cardner further studied the efficacy of chocolate. Although it also believes that it also has the disadvantages that cause people to obese and damage the digestive system and make people’s rhythm, it still affirms that it makes people feel happy, strengthen the body, and cool down.The advantages of heat -eliminating, which undoubtedly let the Europeans let go of the final alert to chocolate, so that it can cross cultural barriers and eventually reach Europe.
走 From popular in Europe to the world
When Coco became a trading commodity in Spain, more and more Spanish locals began to try this novel drink. Chocolate quickly swept the entire Spain, and during this process, the Spanish court played a great role.In the first half of the 17th century, chocolate became the favorite drink of the Spanish court nobles. The royal family specially set up a "chocolate room" for visitors to taste to show their honor.In 1615, Spain and the French royal family married, King Louis XIII of France married the daughter of King Philip II of Spain.To celebrate the alliance, Annie brought chocolate samples to the Royal Palace of France.With Annie’s boost, drinking chocolate has become the fashion of the French nobles. Soon the French, British, and Austrian nobles have set up a "chocolate room". Chocolate is also popular in these areas, and slowly walks into the lives of civilians.Europe.
Given that chocolate has a strong demand in Europe, the source of Coco’s supply has become a low -cost labor market and finished dumping market.At first, Spain required the colonies to tribute to the prince country each year, but as the demand for chocolate increased, European businessmen saw Coco’s huge market and profit space, and quickly rushed to the Americas.company.The labor of these companies is either the American or African slaves. It is conceivable how many miserable stories and hard -earned stories behind the cocoa trade of the prosperous cocoa trade.
Most of the Americas are the colonies of Spain and Portugal. After the popularity of Coco is popular in Europe, with the colonial expansion of European countries such as Britain, France, and the Netherlands in the African continent and South Asia, the cocoa tree was quickly introduced by Europeans to Africa and andSouth Asia is planted in large quantities, especially in today’s Corteda and Ghana, and large blockbusters of the Cocoa Manor are established.With a stable raw material supply, the price of cocoa decreases.At the end of the 18th century, with the development of the industrial revolution, new technologies emerged endlessly. Hydropower, steam power, industrial grinding machines and steam power mixers accelerated the production of chocolates. Based on this, people continued to improve chocolate drinks.Dutch chemist CohenradjohannesvanhouTen invented the chocolate squeezer, developed a method of separating cocoa and cocoa powder, and applied for a patent in 1828 to make the large -scale production of solid chocolate productionbecome possible.Since then, chocolate production has entered a new era of full -speed development, and some inventors have become the founders of famous chocolate manufacturers. Some of them have continued to this day and are widely known.Wait, chocolate has also become one of the favorite desserts of modern people.
From the "food of the gods" of the ancient American civilization, the noble drinks and the currency, to the food produced by large -scale industrialization, history has witnessed the process of cocoa from continent to Europe and the world.For nearly 4,000 years, Coco has gone through the change of civilization and the changes in society, witnessing the sweat, blood and tears and wisdom paid by humans, and the sweetness of harvest.Behind a small chocolate, there is a history of the development of heavy human civilization.
"Guangming Daily" (13th edition on July 13, 2023)
Source: Guangming.com- "Guangming Daily"