"Facial" in medicine
Although the face -to -face techniques have been circulating since ancient times, it belongs to metaphysics, but in fact, many diseases have typical special faces, and can be used as a basis for diagnosis. They can even be given to artificial intelligence to make "face recognition" judgment.
For example, the congenital genetic disease of the multi -system disease Nonan (Noonan) syndrome, which has a typical face in the infantile period, manifested as a wide eye distance, the lower corner of the eyes, the deep in the middle, the low ear position, the lower jaw, etc.Essence
Figure 1 Nudan syndrome newborn facial features (Figure source: )
We once introduced the Williams syndrome patient introduced in the article "Social Cattle X is also a disease …", which has a small elves face, which is specifically manifested as a wide forehead and bipolar narrowing.Full orbital perimeter, star/lace iris pattern, full cheeks, long people, protruding earlobe, etc.
Figure 2 Facial features of Williams syndrome with children (Figure Source: )
X chain inherited adhesive polysaccharide accumulation disease type II patients usually show increasingly obvious facial features in the age of 2-4: wide nostrils, protruding upper orbital crickets, large jaws, thick lips, and protruding tongue.
Figure 3 Patients with adhesive polysaccharide storage disease 6 months, 5 years, 9 years, and 30 years old (Figure source: )
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDS), also known as fetal alcohol syndrome, is a permanent birth defect caused by alcohol during pregnancy.In addition to the problems of learning, memory, attention, vision, hearing, heart, kidneys, etc., it may also show abnormal facial features, such as smooth people, thin upper lip, small eyes, and upturning of the nose.
Figure 4 Typical facial features in children with the worst fetal alcohol syndrome in FASDS (source: source: Wikipedia)
Previous studies have shown that drinking a week during pregnancy does not exceed 70 grams of water -free alcohol, which will affect the baby’s skull development.But for the lower -level prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), previous studies have concluded the opposite conclusion.The American Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that there is no safe and harmless alcohol intake during pregnancy and pregnancy.It is said that "aside from dosage and toxicity is a hooligan." So what about the facts?
Recently, the research team led by Gennady Roshchupkin, a assistant professor and computing group biology group leader of the Rotterdam Iraras Mights, used 3D imaging and deep learning algorithms to study the facial features of more than 5,600 school -age children, and will be with her mother with her mother.Drinking during pregnancy and even the first three months of pregnancy is linked.The research results are published in Humman Refrification Essence
Figure 5 Research results (Figure Source: )
Researchers divide the mother into three groups based on the amount of alcohol: before or during pregnancy without drinking (control group), drinking alcohol three months before pregnancy, but stopping drinking after pregnancy, and drinking during pregnancy (including only three months of pregnancy, only three months of pregnancy.Drinking and drinking during pregnancy).It is worth noting that 99%of mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy also drink alcohol three months before pregnancy.Drinking levels from once a week to daily> 3 drinks are divided into six levels.Drinking once is defined as the intake of 12 grams of alcohol, which is equivalent to a small cup of 175 ml of wine or 330 ml of beer.
Using deep neural networks, the researchers generate 200 features for each 3D image and are associated with the drinking situation of the mother, which greatly reduces the complexity information caused by direct skull surface measurement, photo measurement, landmark distance measurement and other methods.Lost.
The research results show that even if the mother drinks only 12 grams of alcohol once a week, the child’s facial features will change, and the degree of change is related to the mother’s drinking amount during pregnancy.However, the impact on the development of the skull will weaken with age. The relationship between PAE and face shape found by the research team in the 9 -year -old children’s group has not appeared in the 13 -year -old children’s group.The reasons for different conclusions for the study of the larger age to investigate the objects.
Figure 7 The impact of different drinking levels on the facial features of 9 -year -old children (Figure Source: )
In addition, this study also discovered for the first time that the children who drink alcohol three months before pregnancy but quit alcohol during pregnancy also have alcohol -related facial features.
"This is the first time that the relationship between PAE and children’s facial features is displayed at such a low level of drinking." Professor Roshchupkin emphasized that "there is no established safe drinking level during pregnancy.Make sure that the mother and the development of the fetus will get the best health results. "In the future, researchers will further study the possible mechanism of PAE and children’s development, as well as how this association develops and weakens with age.
Responsible editor | Fengli Xiao School pair | Muzi Jiu
Reference materials:  http://www3.pedsanesthesia.org/newsletters/2017fall/noonans.html  https://intergenetics.euuuuuxam/williams-syndrome/  Martin r,Beck M, English, recography and diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis II (hunter syndrome). Pediatrics. 2008 FEB; 121 (2): E377-86. Doi: 10.1542/PEDS .2007-1350. PMID: 18245410.  X Liu, M Kayser, S A Kushner, ET Al, Association BetWeen Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Children’s Facial Shape: A Prospective Populating-Based Cohort St UDY, Human Reproduction, 2023 ;,d006, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead006  https://www.eshre.eu/press-room/press-reases-2023/alcohol-nd-face-shape This article is a biological exploration original, welcome to repost and share.If any other media or websites need to be reproduced, it must indicate the source biological exploration in front of the text.