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The fungus is the "frequent visitor on the tongue" of the Chinese people.However, in recent years, news of black fungus poisoning is often seen.What exactly made the delicious black fungus into a fatal "poisonous fungus"?The Yangtze Evening News and Jiangnan University School of Food and Amway Trey jointly launched a series of short videos of the "Talk Real" series. This video, let us walk into Jiangnan University Microbiology Laboratory to find out!
Black fungus in black fungus for a long time is damaged
The reporter reviewed that since 2010, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Hunan, Anhui, Liaoning and other places have appeared in cases of poisoning with black fungus soaked for a long time.In April of this year, Ms. Wang from Hangzhou, Zhejiang ate black fungus for 2 days, and soon had abdominal pain, diarrhea, high fever, hypotension, wet limbs, and skin scleral yellow stains.After inspection by the hospital, it was found that Ms. Wang was damaged by multiple organs, worsening liver and kidney function, and then the symptoms of shock occurred.Fortunately, they turned to the ICU urgently. After timely rescue, they were out of danger of life.
Black fungus may be contaminated by environmental, and long -term soaking produces pathogenic bacteria
"First of all, the black fungus itself is non -toxic." Experts from the School of Food, Jiangnan University emphasized that black fungus is rich in nutrients, including the protein, trace elements, carbohydrates, fattes necessary for the human body.etc.
However, the black fungus we bought on the market is generally the product of drying and processing.Therefore, it is often necessary to make a period of time before making.The outer skin of the black fungus has a layer of glue nutrients. During the soaking process, the black fungus epidermis will crack, and the nutrients contained in them will gradually penetrate into the water.This is equivalent to the water soaking in black fungus into "nutritional water", becoming a "hotbed" for bacteria and mold breeding.
"In the environment where the black fungus soaked for a long time, there is a pathogenic bacteria called coconut poisoning and single bacteria." Associate Professor Zhang Yi of the School of Food of Jiangnan University told reporters that coconut poisoning and single bacteria is a kind ofWide existing bacteria, black fungus, in the process of planting and transportation, if it is stored and processed properly, it may be contaminated by bacteria.
And this kind of bacteria can produce a very toxin with a very toxicity, which is "rice yeast acid".
The clinical symptoms of rice yeast poisoning are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and abdominal distension. In severe cases, the symptoms of multiple organs have damaged symptoms and even cause death.It is worth noting that because of its high heat resistance, even if 100 ° C is high -temperature cooking, it cannot destroy the toxicity of rice yeast acid.So not only eat cold black fungus, even if it is fried black fungus, if this toxin already exists, there is still the possibility of poisoning.
Rice yeast acid has been proven to exist in fermented corn surface products, metamorphic white fungus and other metamorphic starch products.In 2020, 9 people in Heilongjiang Jixi died of sour soup died. The culprit was it!
After soaking for 16 hours, "fatal toxin" was detected
Here we noticed a keyword: soak for a long time.
So how long will the black fungus become "poisonous fungus"?This time, we walked into Jiangnan University Microbiology Lab.
Coconut poisoning and fake monolma belongs to concentrated anaerobic bacteria. It is easy to grow on the surface of the food. The most suitable growth temperature is 37 ° C. The most suitable temperature for generic acid acidic acid is 26 ° C and within the range of pH5 to 7.In the laboratory, the experiments simulated the environment that is most suitable for coconut poison and pseudo -bacteria growth and the production of rice yeast acid, soak and store black fungus samples, detect whether the samples produce rice yeast acid, verify the black wood bubble hair hair hair hair, Storage conditions and the correlation of rice yeast acid and the safety of consumption.
Experimental staff of the "Green Bud Food and Education" team of Jiangnan University Food College purchased a well -packed black fungus in the supermarket, divided the amount of dried lugs in four copies, and soaked in the experimental utensils for 2 hours, 4 hours, 8, 8, and 8 under the room temperature.Hours, 16 hours.Experimental personnel take an appropriate amount of bubbles and use a kit special detection of rice yeast acid to determine. Miciacinic acid is not detected in the bubble liquid in 2 hours, 4 hours, and 8 hours.
However, in the 16 -hour bubbles, the experimental personnel found that the test results of rice yeast acid were positive (that is, the detection limit of 3 μg/kg beyond the kit).It can be seen that rice yeast acid has been produced in the fungus of more than 16 hours, so it may cause beeflytic acid poisoning and cause serious consequences!
So does not detect rice yeast acid, does it mean there is no risk?Experimental personnel further determine the total number of microbial colonies of bubbles.Although there was no beef toxin, the total number of microbial colonies was found to be more than 10,000.That is to say, for 8 hours of fungus, there may be food safety risks.
"Talking toxicity cannot leave the dosage." In subsequent inquiry and experiments, we found that the LD50 (*) of rice yeast acid acid (*) is 6.84mg/kg.The toxicity of rice yeast acid is still not small. Therefore, once this type of food poisoning occurs, you must not be lucky, and you must send it to the hospital for emergency treatment as soon as possible.
Expert reminder 丨
How much soak is eaten, do not have more than 4 hours for soaking hair
Experiments tell us that the fungus that has been soaked for a long time must not be eaten!So, how much is the time to control the hair of black fungus to be safe?
Associate Professor Zhang Yi of Jiangnan University School of Food reminded that when we usually eat fungus, we must pay attention to the following four points:
First, pay attention to controlling the hair time: If the cold water is soaked, it is advisable for 1 to 2 hours, and it should not exceed 4 hours at most.
Second, keep the environment clean: When soaking, pay attention to the cleaning utensils, water and fungus.
Third, how much soak is eaten: Do not soak too much at one time. In the case of too much hair, take it out in time, blanch it with boiling water for 1 minute, and put it in the refrigerator after cooling.edible.
Fourth, pay attention to the danger signal: If you find that the fungus is sticky, soft, and odor, it should be discarded immediately.
In addition, it is not just fungus, you should pay attention to this problem when you get Tremella, various dry goods and vegetables.If poisoning occurs, vomiting, gastric lavage should be urged in time, and you should seek medical treatment as soon as possible.After eating such foods, no matter if there is any symptoms, you should seek medical treatment in time.
LD50: Median Lethal Dose said that within the specified time, by specifying the infection pathway, the minimum bacterial number or toxic quantity required for a certain weight or age of certain animals.The smaller the LD50 value, the stronger the toxicity of the external chemicals; the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity.
About "Talking about Talks"
In order to create a clear network space and let the science run rumors, the Yangtze Evening News and Jiangnan University Food Academy and Amway Nutrille jointly launched a series of short videos of the "Talk Real" series, selecting the rumors of online food safety and nutritional diets on the Internet, scientific verificationPseudo, let the rigorous science sound deeply rooted in people’s hearts.
Relying on ARWU ("Software"), Jiangnan University’s Food Discipline, which is ranked No. 1 in the world, will invite experts to interpret online rumors each issue.We will invite experts into the laboratory and use scientific experiments to reveal the truth of food rumors.
Professor Tian Fengwei, Professor Qian He, Professor Zhong Fang, Professor Hong Yan, Associate Professor Zhang Yi, and other well -known experts in the School of Food of Jiangnan University are scientific consultants of short videos.The planning and shooting of short videos is also a "green bud food education" team composed of the School of Food College of Jiangnan University.
Scientific consultant in this issue
Tian Fengwei, a professor, doctorate, and graduate instructor.Mainly engaged in teaching and scientific research in the fields of food microbiology and food biotechnology, especially dedicated to the research and application development of food microbial biobiography such as lactic acid bacteria and probiotics.
Zhang Yi, associate professor, doctoral, and graduate mentor, mainly engaged in the detection and imaging method of food functional and harmful ingredients.
Yangtze Evening News/Zi Niu Journalist Yu Dandan
School pair Xu Yan